The common cold (ARI) - an acute infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract.
It can be caused by various viruses (parainfluenza, influenza, adenoviruses, rhinoviruses, Reovirus, etc.). They are very contagious (contagious), transmitted by airborne droplets (sneezing, cough) and contact mechanisms (through common household items, handshake, handrails in public transport). The symptoms of the common cold
After the agent was in the body needed time to overcome it protective barriers of the body and started to reproduce in sufficient numbers, showing its effects on the body. This time is called the incubation period. For the duration of the SARS incubation period ranges from several hours to 3 days, an average of 2 days, depending on the aggressiveness of the virus, the number of virus particles and the state of defenses of the respiratory system.
Then gradually develop clinical presentation of SARS. It can be divided into two syndromes - catarrhal and intoxication.
Catarrhal syndrome is the result of the impression of the mucous membranes of the nose and shows zakladennistyu, dry, scratchy throat and pain with possible change of voice, dry cough, sneezing, redness of the conjunctiva of the eye, tearing, sometimes - photophobia.
Intoxication syndrome usually appears later catarrhal and disappears before it but nevertheless is more difficult. Reproduction of viruses within cells accompanied by the formation of toxins dangerous to humans. The destruction of infected cells leading to ingress of these substances in the blood that cause picture and intoxication syndrome. It manifests: fever, chills, pain in joints and muscles, in more severe cases - nausea, vomiting and loss of consciousness. Preventing SARS.
In order to avoid contracting colds need to perform simple rules known
- Avoid crowds - to reduce the chance of contact with sick people. This is especially true of November and the month of February, as at this time recorded a seasonal increase in the incidence of SARS.
- Use disposable masks - to protect themselves or others from infection. The mask is effective only if it covers the mouth and nose, it should be replaced as soon as it becomes wet or dirty.
- Use disposable paper napkins and towels - as after hand washing, and to cover the face during coughing, as well as cold. Used tissues should immediately throw in the trash because they can also be a factor in the spread of infection
- Cover your mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing - to prevent the spread of infected droplets of mucus that is a factor of infection. If you covered his mouth with his hands, they should immediately wash with soap and water or disinfectant gel process, otherwise, all your subsequent touches constitute a danger to others.
- regularly ventilate the room and do wet cleaning - both in the room and in the workplace, not to leave around a live viruses and bacteria that can remain active for several hours after being in the room sick person. Fully eat, sleep, avoid fatigue - to improve the body's ability carts.
- Have clean hands - infection enters the body through the mouth, nose and eyes, which you occasionally touching hands. In those hands you hold the money or holding the railing, where a few hours remain awake viruses and bacteria left on hands touch others. Therefore, the need to frequently wash their hands with soap or disinfectant gel process them with alcohol content. Treatment
It is important to remember late or incorrect treatment of SARS could lead to the development of complications, which may manifest as sinusitis, otitis, bronchitis, pneumonia and even meningitis. Therefore, when the first clinical symptoms of colds do not need to self-medicate, and should immediately contact a doctor!
Assistant of infection
Diseases and Epidemiology BSMU